Kallaste is a former Fedoseyan, now Pomorian community. Kallaste, or 'Krasnye Gory' in Russian, was initially a fishermen village, then a suburb. In 1938, it was promoted to the status of a city.
The fishermen village of Krasnye Gory, situated on the Lake Peipus shore in Kokora manor in Alatskivi municipality at the distance of 39 kilometers from Tartu, was founded in the 18th century by Old Believers of the Fedoseyan concord (soglasie), who fled from the Novgorod territories. In 1802, a wooden worship house was built in the village.
Nicholas I's prohibition on the building and restoration of the Old Believers' worship houses (1826) opened a way to the persecution of Old Believers. In the early 1830s, the wave of repressions reached Prichudye. During a search in the Kallaste worship house, a printed Gospel with the inscription "The Sava Vishersky monastery of the Novgorod eparchy, donated by Marfa Ivanova to the hegumen of the monastery" was found. Before that, another two books had been confiscated: a "face" (illustrated) book and The Story of the Solovetsky martyrs. In 1837, the worship house was sealed under the pretext of the ostensibly illegal repairs of the building.
Yet the community life went on. In February 1848, Riga Bishop Filaret informed Riga Governor Golovin: "After the worship houses in Krasnye Gory and Kolki have been sealed, local preceptors (nastavniki) have turned private houses into the worship houses and hold services at nights. Such kind of gatherings take place in the village of Krasnye Gory at Saveli Kromanov's, responsible (starosta) for recruitment in Dorpat district (uezd)". In 1850, the authorities discovered a secret worship house in a rickety wooden building. There followed the order to destroy the building. The preceptor Ivan Ivanov was against his will baptized into edinoverie (unified faith) in the Reval St Nicholas church in April 1851.
Alexander II's reforms somehow improved the Prichudye Old Believers' life condition. In 1865, a new worship house was built and the divine service resumed. In 1903, the repairs were made in the worship house.
On August 20, 1913, Livland Governor registered the Old Believer community of the Pomorian concord (soglasie) in Krasnye Gory village of the Province of Livland. Ioann Semenovich Glukharev-Rusakov was its preceptor (nastavnik). In the same year, the bell tower was built on the worship house (which still exists). The purchase of the bell, which costed 1200 roubles, was financially supported by community members.
After Estonia had claimed independence in 1918, the Krasnye Gory community became a largest one in Estonia. The Krasnye Gory residents had oficially registered their community in 1924. Later it was re-registered twice: in 1926 as a society (Kallaste Old Believer Society) and in 1936 as a parish (Kallaste Old Believer Religious Society). By 1930, the community consisted of 1300 members. M. I. Makarov performed preceptor's functions. I. A. Dolgoshev, who represented the community at the 5th congress and was elected a member of the board of the Central Old Believer Council of Estonia, was the chairman of the community. In 1935, N. D. Kukin was elected the preceptor and T. F. Malyshev the chairman of the community. In the late 1930s, Kukin was temporarily under arrest for conducting the divine service in accordance with the old calendar style.
The most important event of the time was the 5th All-Estonian Old Believers' Congress in Kallaste on July 17-19 of 1928. The Charter of the Old Belief Church was adopted and the Central Old Believer Council of the Old Belief Church of Estonia was elected at the congress. There was a good church chorus directed by Filimon Fedorovich Pavlov in Kallaste in the 1920-30s. G. Florov's pupil, the icon painter and restorer M. Solntsev was also a member of the Krasnye Gory community. Y.Y. Dolgosheva was engaged in the artistic embroidering of icons. N. D. Kukin was famous for his skill of copying the manuscript books.
The Soviet rule of 1940-1991 interrupted the normal course of Old Believers' life. It was the age of anti-religious propaganda and struggle against religion. In spring 1941, the circle of militant atheists was organized in Kallaste. The Old Believers tried to preserve their tradition despite the obstacles. On August 10, 1945, the community was registered under the name of the Kallaste Old Believer community. It consisted of 873 members in the late 1940s. Ilya Yakovlevich Svinkov, later Illarion Tylnikov and Nikolai Shlendukhov were elected preceptors. Isak Shlendukhov, later Petr Shlendukhov and Saveli Zubarev held the chairman's position.
In the late 1960-1970s, Fedor Yakovlevich Noyev, later V. D. Selgitsky were the community preceptors. The divine service was held by Yevstolia Shlendukhova and Varvara Zakharova. The first (after 1940) all-Estonian church feast day was celebrated in Kallaste on August 29, 1998. This event marked the restoration of the pre-war tradition. The chairman of the community Pavel Petrovich Varunin was elected the secretary of the Union of the Old Believer Congregations (Communities) of Estonia.
Kallaste Old Believers took part in the commemoration of the 60-year anniversary of promotion of Kallaste to a status of the city and the 195-year anniversary of the church. First time the Prime Minister of Estonia arrived to congratulate Old Believers on the occasion of the memorable dates. The elder preceptor V. D. Selgitsky consecrated the flag of the city in the course of the celebration. At present, divine service is held by Khionia Tikhomirova.
Sources: EHA, f. 29, series 1, record 402; f. 297, series 1, record 4874; EHA, f. 3, series 10, record 293, 342, 369; f. 291, series 8, record 593 (Прошения и переписка о жалобе раскольников деревень Красные Горы, Ротчина и Кольки за перепись их, произведенную по распоряжению духовного начальства 1839. - The sheets 4-5, 8, 16-17, 20-21 are partially published by Ageyeva, p. 110-114); record 1230 (Переписка с МВД и др.о раскольничьих молельнях в д. Красные горы и Колькья. 1948-55); record 1529 (Переписка об уничтожении раскольничьей молельни в д. Красные Горы и об агитации раскольников для перехода в православие. 1850-60).
References: Протокол 5-го Старообрядческого съезда в Эстонии 17, 18, 19 июля 1928 г. в посаде Красные Горы. Б.м., б.г.; СЦК 1967, с. 91; СЦК 1968, с. 27.
G. Ponomaryova, T. Shor